Kalman filtering for real-time navigator processing Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Heart
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine


  • Navigator echoes are used in high-resolution cardiac MRI for tracking physiological motion to suppress motion artifacts. Alternatives to the conventional diaphragm navigator such as the cardiac fat navigator and the k-space center signal (self-navigator) were developed to monitor heart motion directly. These navigator data can be noisy or may contain undesirable frequency components. Real-time filtering of navigator data without delay, as opposed to the previously used retrospective frequency band filtering, is required for effective prospective navigator gating. One of the commonly used real-time filtering techniques is the Kalman filter, which adaptively estimates motion and suppresses measurement noise by using Bayesian statistics and a motion model. The Kalman filter is investigated in this work to filter noise and distinguish cardiac and respiratory components in navigator data. Preliminary imaging data demonstrate the feasibility of real-time Kalman filtering for prospective respiratory self-gating in CINE cardiac MRI.

publication date

  • July 2008



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1002/mrm.21649

PubMed ID

  • 18581354

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 158

end page

  • 68


  • 60


  • 1