Prognostic factors for survival of patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma: Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Prospective identification of patients with stage IV renal cell carcinoma more likely to benefit from cytokine therapy could be used as a stratification factor in Phase III trials and in risk-directed therapy. The relationship between pretreatment clinical features and survival was evaluated in patients treated in Phase II and III clinical trials for metastatic renal cell carcinoma at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. The first analysis was performed in 670 patients treated with cytokines or chemotherapy, and a multivariate model was created to predict survival. Studies that followed addressed four topics: (1) the survival of patients given interferon alpha as first-line therapy, (2) a comparison of survival for patients treated with chemotherapy versus cytokine therapy, (3) survival of patients with nonclear cell histologic features, and (4) survival of patients treated with a second-line therapy. Prognostic models based on pretreatment clinical and laboratory variables can help identify patients more likely to benefit from standard therapies, as well as assist in the interpretation of drug effectiveness in Phase II clinical trials. Investigations into new prognostic factors based on tumor biology are needed and of high priority.