Brain and leptomeningeal metastases from cutaneous melanoma: Survival outcomes based on clinical features
Brain metastases (BM) are among the most devastating and debilitating complications of melanoma. This retrospective study was conducted to gain a better understanding of patient and disease characteristics that have the greatest impact on overall survival in melanoma patients with BM; therapeutic interventions were also assessed. The records of all patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma and BM who were seen at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1991 and 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. A variety of factors, including age at diagnosis of stage IV disease, gender, race, disease stage at diagnosis, presence of BM at diagnosis of stage IV disease, neurologic symptoms, radiographic findings, number of BM, status and site(s) of extracranial metastasis, and treatment modalities, were analyzed for correlation with overall survival using univariate and multivariate Cox regression models. The records of 355 patients with BM were included in the analysis. On univariate analysis, seven patient and disease characteristics were significantly associated with poorer survival: age > 65 years, extracranial metastases, BM at stage IV diagnosis, neurologic symptoms, four or more BM, hydrocephalus, and leptomeningeal metastases. Of these, age, extracranial metastasis, neurologic symptoms, and number of BM were significantly associated with poorer survival in a multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis of treatment modalities suggested that patients who had surgery, radiosurgery, or chemotherapy with temozolomide had improved survival outcomes, although this analysis has limitations. The prognostic factors identified in this retrospective study should be considered when making treatment decisions for patients with BM and used as stratification factors in future clinical trials.