Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: A pathway for late-stage quality control
Hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein-B (apoB), the major protein of atherogenic lipoproteins, is regulated through posttranslational degradation. We reported a degradation pathway, post-ER pre secretory proteolysis (PERPP), that is increased by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated within hepatocytes from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We now report the molecular processes by which PUFA-derived ROS regulate PERPP of apoB. ApoB exits the ER; undergoes limited oxidant-dependent aggregation; and then, upon exit from the Golgi, becomes extensively oxidized and converted into large aggregates. The aggregates slowly degrade by an autophagic process. None of the oxidized, aggregated material leaves cells, thereby preventing export of apoB-lipoproteins containing potentially toxic lipid peroxides. In summary, apoB secretory control via PERPP/autophagosomes is likely a key component of normal and pathologic regulation of plasma apoB levels, as well as a means for remarkably late-stage quality control of a secreted protein.