Molecular phylogenetics of mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Collagen Type I
  • Dinosaurs
  • Elephants
  • Phylogeny


  • We report a molecular phylogeny for a nonavian dinosaur, extending our knowledge of trait evolution within nonavian dinosaurs into the macromolecular level of biological organization. Fragments of collagen alpha1(I) and alpha2(I) proteins extracted from fossil bones of Tyrannosaurus rex and Mammut americanum (mastodon) were analyzed with a variety of phylogenetic methods. Despite missing sequence data, the mastodon groups with elephant and the T. rex groups with birds, consistent with predictions based on genetic and morphological data for mastodon and on morphological data for T. rex. Our findings suggest that molecular data from long-extinct organisms may have the potential for resolving relationships at critical areas in the vertebrate evolutionary tree that have, so far, been phylogenetically intractable.

publication date

  • April 25, 2008



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1126/science.1154284

PubMed ID

  • 18436782

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 499


  • 320


  • 5875