The adolescent brain Review uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Adolescent Development
  • Brain


  • Adolescence is a developmental period characterized by suboptimal decisions and actions that are associated with an increased incidence of unintentional injuries, violence, substance abuse, unintended pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Traditional neurobiological and cognitive explanations for adolescent behavior have failed to account for the nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence, relative to both childhood and adulthood. This review provides a biologically plausible model of the neural mechanisms underlying these nonlinear changes in behavior. We provide evidence from recent human brain imaging and animal studies that there is a heightened responsiveness to incentives and socioemotional contexts during this time, when impulse control is still relatively immature. These findings suggest differential development of bottom-up limbic systems, implicated in incentive and emotional processing, to top-down control systems during adolescence as compared to childhood and adulthood. This developmental pattern may be exacerbated in those adolescents prone to emotional reactivity, increasing the likelihood of poor outcomes.

publication date

  • March 2008



  • Review



  • eng

PubMed Central ID

  • PMC2475802

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1196/annals.1440.010

PubMed ID

  • 18400927

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 111

end page

  • 26


  • 1124