Modified amino acid copolymers suppress myelin basic protein 85-99-induced encephalomyelitis in humanized mice through different effects on T cells
Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental
A humanized mouse bearing the HLA-DR2 (DRA/DRB1*1501) protein associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) and the myelin basic protein (MBP) 85-99-specific HLA-DR2-restricted T cell receptor from an MS patient has been used to examine the effectiveness of modified amino acid copolymers poly(F,Y,A,K)n and poly-(V,W,A,K)n in therapy of MBP 85-99-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in comparison to Copolymer 1 [Copaxone, poly(Y,E,A,K)n]. The copolymers were designed to optimize binding to HLA-DR2. Vaccination, prevention, and treatment of MBP-induced EAE in the humanized mice with copolymers FYAK and VWAK ameliorated EAE more effectively than Copolymer 1, reduced the number of pathological lesions, and prevented the up-regulation of human HLA-DR on CNS microglia. Moreover, VWAK inhibited MBP 85-99-specific T cell proliferation more efficiently than either FYAK or Copolymer 1 and induced anergy of HLA-DR2-restricted transgenic T cells as its principle mechanism. In contrast, FYAK induced proliferation and a pronounced production of the antiinflammatory T helper 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 from nontransgenic T cells as its principle mechanism of immunosuppression. Thus, copolymers generated by using different amino acids inhibited disease using different mechanisms to regulate T cell responses.