3D simulations of electromagnetic fields in nanostructures using the time-harmonic finite-element method
Cell Transformation, Viral
Receptors, Cell Surface
Rigorous computer simulations of propagating electromagnetic fields have become an important tool for optical metrology and optics design of nanostructured components. As has been shown in previous benchmarks some of the presently used methods suffer from low convergence rates and/or low accuracy of the results and exhibit very long computation times1,2 which makes application to extended 2D layout patterns impractical. We address 3D simulation tasks by using a finite-element solver which has been shown to be superior to competing methods by several orders of magnitude in accuracy and computational time for typical microlithography simulations.2 We report on the current status of the solver, incorporating higher order edge elements, adaptive refinement methods, and fast solution algorithms. Further, we investigate the performance of the solver in the 3D simulation project of light diffraction off an alternating phase-shift contact-hole mask.