Fludarabine-Based Conditioning Secures Engraftment of Second Hematopoietic Stem Cell Allografts (HSCT) in the Treatment of Initial Graft Failure Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Salvage Therapy
  • Transplantation Conditioning
  • Vidarabine


  • Graft failure is associated with a high mortality rate. To date, regimens invoked for second transplants have resulted in inconsistent engraftment with high transplant-related mortality (TRM). We here report 16 consecutive patients, aged 4-59 years, who received second HSCT (HSCT-2) at a median of 45 days following primary or secondary failure of an initial unmodified (N = 3) or T cell-depleted (TCD) (N = 13) HSCT (HSCT-1). HSCT-1 was administered after myeloablative total body irradiation (TBI)- or alkylator-based conditioning for acute leukemias (N = 7), MDS (N = 6), CML (N = 2), and Fanconi anemia (N = 1). All patients experienced 1 or more infectious complications between HSCT-1 and HSCT-2, and 10 patients had active infections at the time of HSCT-2. Cytoreduction regimens used for HSCT-2 included fludarabine (Flu) in combination with cyclophosphamide (CTX) (N = 9), or thiotepa (Thio) (N = 5). In addition, 1 patient received Flu alone and 1 patient Thio combined with CTX. Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) (N = 11) or Alemtuzumab (N = 3) was added pretransplant to prevent rejection. For HSCT-2, donors included HLA-matched (N = 3) or mismatched (N = 8) related, or matched (N = 2) or mismatched (N = 3) unrelated donors. The primary graft donor was used in 6 of 16 cases. The grafts administered were unmodified peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) (N = 5) or bone marrow transplantation (BMT) (N = 3), TCD PBSCT (N = 8). All patients achieved engraftment at a median of 12 days and evaluable patients achieved complete donor chimerism. Six patients are alive with a median follow-up of 49 months, including 4/9 conditioned with Flu/CTX. In this series, outcome was statistically superior for younger patients (

publication date

  • November 2007



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.bbmt.2007.07.006

PubMed ID

  • 17950918

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 1313

end page

  • 23


  • 13


  • 11