A frequency-based approach to locate common structure for 2D-3D intensity-based registration of setup images in prostate radiotherapy
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
In many radiotherapy clinics, geometric uncertainties in the delivery of 3D conformal radiation therapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy of the prostate are reduced by aligning the patient's bony anatomy in the planning 3D CT to corresponding bony anatomy in 2D portal images acquired before every treatment fraction. In this paper, we seek to determine if there is a frequency band within the portal images and the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) of the planning CT in which bony anatomy predominates over non-bony anatomy such that portal images and DRRs can be suitably filtered to achieve high registration accuracy in an automated 2D-3D single portal intensity-based registration framework. Two similarity measures, mutual information and the Pearson correlation coefficient were tested on carefully collected gold-standard data consisting of a kilovoltage cone-beam CT (CBCT) and megavoltage portal images in the anterior-posterior (AP) view of an anthropomorphic phantom acquired under clinical conditions at known poses, and on patient data. It was found that filtering the portal images and DRRs during the registration considerably improved registration performance. Without filtering, the registration did not always converge while with filtering it always converged to an accurate solution. For the pose-determination experiments conducted on the anthropomorphic phantom with the correlation coefficient, the mean (and standard deviation) of the absolute errors in recovering each of the six transformation parameters were θx:0.18(0.19)°, θy:0.04(0.04)°, θz:0.04(0.02)°, tx:0.14(0.15)mm, ty:0.09(0.05)mm, and tz:0.49(0.40)mm. The mutual information-based registration with filtered images also resulted in similarly small errors. For the patient data, visual inspection of the superimposed registered images showed that they were correctly aligned in all instances. The results presented in this paper suggest that robust and accurate registration can be achieved with intensity-based methods by focusing on rigid bony structures in the images while diminishing the influence of artifacts with similar frequencies as soft tissue.