Female/male ratios of autoimmune diseases range from 10:1 to 1:3, with similar severity between the sexes. Men and women respond similarly to the infection and to vaccination, arguing against intrinsic sex differences in immune response. In autoimmune-like illnesses caused by environmental agents sex discrepancy is explained by differences in exposure. Endogenous hormones could cause sex discrepancy if their effect is a threshold off-on switch rather than quantitatively variable. X-inactivation and imprinting could cause sex discrepancy. Other possibilities include chronobiologic differences and pregnancy and menstruation biologies in which men differ from women.