National survey on the susceptibility of Bacteroides fragilis group: Report and analysis of trends in the United States from 1997 to 2004
The susceptibility trends for the species of the Bacteroides fragilis group against various antibiotics from 1997 to 2004 were determined by using data for 5,225 isolates referred by 10 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole. From 1997 to 2004 there were decreases in the geometric mean (GM) MICs of imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and cefoxitin for many of the species within the group. B. distasonis showed the highest rates of resistance to most of the beta-lactams. B. fragilis, B. ovatus, and B. thetaiotaomicron showed significantly higher GM MICs and rates of resistance to clindamycin over time. The rate of resistance to moxifloxacin of B. vulgatus was very high (MIC range for the 8-year study period, 38% to 66%). B. fragilis, B. ovatus, and B. distasonis and other Bacteroides spp. exhibited significant increases in the rates of resistance to moxifloxacin over the 8 years. Resistance rates and GM MICs for tigecycline were low and stable during the 5-year period over which this agent was studied. All isolates were susceptible to chloramphenicol (MICs < 16 microg/ml). In 2002, one isolate resistant to metronidazole (MIC = 64 microg/ml) was noted. These data indicate changes in susceptibility over time; surprisingly, some antimicrobial agents are more active now than they were 5 years ago.