Superficial and muscle-invasive bladder cancer: Principles of management for outcomes assessments
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease. Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer embraces a spectrum of tumors with varying degrees of clinical behavior. Transurethral resection remains the surgical mainstay for the treatment of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. In an attempt to decrease the recurrence or progression rate, intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy is also used. Radical cystectomy with bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection remains the gold standard for treating muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Over the last decade, the orthotopic neobladder has gained widespread popularity as the preferred mode of urinary diversion in both males and females with similar oncologic and functional outcomes. Well-designed trials with effective chemotherapy have shown a beneficial role for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.