The p85α regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase potentiates c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated insulin resistance
JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Insulin resistance is a defining feature of type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. While the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance are multiple, recent evidence suggests that attenuation of insulin signaling by c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) may be a central part of the pathobiology of insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that the p85alpha regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), a key mediator of insulin's metabolic actions, is also required for the activation of JNK in states of insulin resistance, including high-fat diet-induced obesity and JNK1 overexpression. The requirement of the p85alpha regulatory subunit for JNK occurs independently of its role as a component of the PI3K heterodimer and occurs only in response to specific stimuli, namely, insulin and tunicamycin, a chemical that induces endoplasmic reticulum stress. We further show that insulin and p85 activate JNK by via cdc42 and MKK4. The activation of this cdc42/JNK pathway requires both an intact N terminus and functional SH2 domains within the C terminus of the p85alpha regulatory subunit. Thus, p85alpha plays a dual role in regulating insulin sensitivity and may mediate cross talk between the PI3K and stress kinase pathways.