HIV-1 clones resistant to a small molecule CCR5 inhibitor use the inhibitor-bound form of CCR5 for entry
CCR5 Receptor Antagonists
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be inhibited by small molecules that target the CCR5 coreceptor. Here, we describe some properties of clonal viruses resistant to one such inhibitor, SCH-D, using both chimeric, infectious molecular clones and Env-pseudotypes. Studies using combinations of CCR5 ligands, including small molecule inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and chemokine derivatives such as PSC-RANTES, show that the fully SCH-D-resistant viruses enter target cells by using the SCH-D-bound form of CCR5. However, the way resistance to SCH-D and other small molecule CCR5 inhibitors is manifested depends on the target cell and the nature of the assay (single- vs. multi-cycle). In multi-cycle assays using primary lymphocytes, SCH-D does not inhibit resistant molecular clones, and it can even enhance their infectivity modestly. In contrast, the same viruses (as Env-pseudotypes) are significantly inhibited by SCH-D in single-cycle entry assays using U87-CD4/CCR5 cells, resistance being manifested by incomplete inhibition at high SCH-D concentrations. When a single-cycle, Env-pseudotype entry assay was performed using either U87-CD4/CCR5 cells or PBMC under comparable conditions, entry was inhibited by up to 88% in the former cells but by only 28% in the PBMC. Hence, there are both cell- and assay-dependent influences on how resistance is manifested. We also take this opportunity to correct our previous report that SCH-D-resistant isolates are also substantially cross-resistant to PSC-RANTES [Marozsan, A.J., Kuhmann, S.E., Morgan, T., Herrera, C., Rivera-Troche, E., Xu, S., Baroudy, B.M., Strizki, J., Moore, J.P., 2005. Generation and properties of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, SCH-417690 (SCH-D). Virology 338 (1), 182-199]. A substantial element of this resistance was attributable to the unappreciated carry-over of SCH-D from the selection cultures into analytical assays.