Immunohistochemical Expression of Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α and its Downstream Molecules in Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Renal Cell
Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit
Hypoxia inducible pathway markers continue to be over expressed in sarcomatoid clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and can be of diagnostic usefulness in such high grade tumors. Over expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in the clear and nonclear cell groups raises the possibility that vascular endothelial growth factor targeted therapies may have a role in the management of sarcomatoid renal cell carcinoma, and deserve further investigation.