Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and reactive lymphadenopathy in Uganda
Herpesvirus 8, Human
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) causes Kaposi sarcoma and is also associated with primary effusion lymphoma, a subset of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and multicentric Castleman disease. Because KSHV infection is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa, we sought to identify cases of KSHV-positive non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) and reactive lymphadenopathy in this region. One hundred forty-four cases (80 NHLs, 64 reactive lymph nodes) from the major pathology laboratory in Uganda were reviewed. One NHL was KSHV-positive, as indicated by staining for the viral latent nuclear antigen. This NHL was a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 5-year-old boy. The tumor was also Epstein-Barr virus-positive. In addition, 2 reactive lymph nodes, both classified histologically as follicular involution, stained KSHV latent nuclear antigen-positive and thus most likely represent multicentric Castleman disease. In all 3 KSHV-positive cases, a minority of cells expressed KSHV viral interleukin 6, a biologically active cytokine homolog. In conclusion, we show that KSHV is rarely associated with lymphoproliferative disorders in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the first case of a KSHV-positive NHL from this region; this case is also the first reported pediatric lymphoma associated with KSHV infection.