Predictive Value of Cell Cycle Biomarkers in Nonmuscle Invasive Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21
Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Combinations of p53, pRB, p21 and p27 had cooperative/synergistic effects stratifying patients into different risk groups. Higher total numbers of altered biomarkers were independently associated with an increased risk of disease progression and death. Prospective trials are necessary to usher bladder cancer management into the age of molecular biomarkers.