Primary cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders with dual lineage rearrangement
Gene Rearrangement, B-Lymphocyte
Gene Rearrangement, T-Lymphocyte
We present a series of 15 cases of cutaneous lymphoma and pseudolymphoma with dual lineage rearrangement identified among approximately 1200 cases of cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorders assessed in our 4 institutions during the last 8 years in which the results of both T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement investigations were available. On the basis of the clinicopathologic information, the cases were retrospectively subdivided into 2 categories: (1) cases with definite features of cutaneous lymphoma or pseudolymphoma (n = 11) and (2) cases with unclassifiable disease (n = 4). The detection of dual genotype in the first group did not influence the final diagnosis; 7 cases represented cutaneous B-cell lymphomas, 3 pseudolymphomas, and 1 case lymphomatoid papulosis. The presence of monoclonal T-cell receptor-gene rearrangements in these cases may be explained either by monoclonal or oligoclonal expansion of exuberant T cells (or B cells in case of lymphomatoid papulosis) or by lineage infidelity. Three patients with unclassifiable disease had several clinical and histopathologic features in common. They were elderly, presented with solitary lesions, were in good general health and histopathologically demonstrated a dense multinodular infiltrate containing approximately an equal number of T and B cells and a high number of histiocytes forming granulomas, with prominent granulomatous features in 2 cases. B cells were either scattered with the infiltrate or formed collections vaguely resembling follicles; Reed-Sternberg-like cells were seen in 2 cases. B cells showed expression neither of immunoglobulin light chain. The T-cell component was represented mainly by small, well-differentiated lymphocytes or slightly pleomorphic cells, with some medium-sized convoluted cells. Epstein-Barr virus was not detected by polymerase chain reaction. The exact classification of these cases is unknown; they differ histopathologically from previously published cases of bigenotypic cutaneous lymphomas. They may merely represent a growth or reactive pattern, but, on the other hand, may be low-grade lymphomas. If so, they may be histopathologically related to cutaneous Hodgkin disease, T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma, or composite lymphomas. Further reports are needed to identify these lesions to clarify their nature and biologic potential.