Ex vivo application of carbon monoxide in University of Wisconsin solution to prevent intestinal cold ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Disease Models, Animal
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Rats, Inbred Lew
Organ Preservation Solutions
Carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of heme catalysis, was shown to have potent cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo recipient CO inhalation at low concentrations prevented ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury associated with small intestinal transplantation (SITx). This study examined whether ex vivo delivery of CO in University of Wisconsin (UW) solution could ameliorate intestinal I/R injury. Orthotopic syngenic SITx was performed in Lewis rats after 6 h cold preservation in control UW or UW that was bubbled with CO gas (0.1-5%) (CO-UW). Recipient survival with intestinal grafts preserved in 5%, but not 0.1%, CO-UW improved to 86.7% (13/15) from 53% (9/17) with control UW. At 3 h after SITx, grafts stored in 5% CO-UW showed improved intestinal barrier function, less mucosal denudation and reduced inflammatory mediator upregulation compared to those in control UW. Preservation in CO-UW associated with reduced vascular resistance (end preservation), increased graft cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (1 h), and improved graft blood flow (1 h). Protective effects of CO-UW were reversed by ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase. In vitro culture experiment also showed better preservation of vascular endothelial cells with CO-UW. The study suggests that ex vivo CO delivery into UW solution would be a simple and innovative therapeutic strategy to prevent transplant-induced I/R injury.