The evolution of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases as regulators of growth and metabolism
Cell Growth Processes
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks) evolved from a single enzyme that regulates vesicle trafficking in unicellular eukaryotes into a family of enzymes that regulate cellular metabolism and growth in multicellular organisms. In this review, we examine how the PI3K pathway has evolved to control these fundamental processes, and how this pathway is in turn regulated by intricate feedback and crosstalk mechanisms. In light of the recent advances in our understanding of the function of PI3Ks in the pathogenesis of diabetes and cancer, we discuss the exciting therapeutic opportunities for targeting this pathway to treat these diseases.