Novel therapies for heart failure: focus on anti-inflammatory strategies.
The understanding of the pathomechanisms leading to heart failure has evolved from the simplistic pump-failure concept to the more complex syndrome involving neurohormonal and inflammatory systems. Anti-inflammatory therapy targeting specific cytokines, however, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, has failed to show clinical benefit. As a result, the focus has turned toward more broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory strategies. This review examines the various broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory modalities that have been used in heart failure: IV immunoglobulin administration, immune modulation therapy, immune adsorption, and plasmapheresis.