High-resolution MAS NMR spectroscopy detection of the spin magnetization exchange by cross-relaxation and chemical exchange in intact cell lines and human tissue specimens
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
High-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy detects resolved signals from membrane phospholipids and proteins in intact cell and tissue samples. MAS has the additional advantage of quenching spin-diffusion through a mutual "flip-flop" of neighbor spins by time-independent dipolar coupling as long as the dipolar coupling is "inhomogeneous." Under MAS, significant magnetization transfer (MT) was observed between water and each proton site in membrane phospholipid and between water and the NMR-observable protein proton signals. The MT rates between water and membrane phospholipids are lower than those between water and protein proton signals. The interaction of water to other small molecules is selective with the observation of MT from water to creatine, lactate, taurine, and glycine, but not to triglyceride, phosphocholine, choline, or myo-inositol. HR-MAS NMR allows the detection of a complete MT network between water and each proton group of creatine. Two creatine pools (one motion-restricted and one motion-free) were identified in skeletal muscle.