Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment
This article discusses the current knowledge on the most promising cerebrospinal fluid diagnostic biomarkers for mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease. The considered biomarkers include total and phosphorylated Tau proteins, 40- and 42-residue forms of amyloid β and isoprostanes. Both the biological rationales and validation histories for each of the cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are briefly presented and clinical results from relevant studies in the field are discussed. Comments on issues related to the cerebrospinal fluid clearance kinetics and how this may affect detection of the biomarkers in the cerebrospinal fluid are also presented. The concept of mild cognitive impairment and current views on this potential stage of the transition from normal aging to Alzheimer's disease and to other dementias are also discussed. Future perspectives, including limitations in identifying reliable, sensitive and specific mild cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease biomarkers, are presented. © 2006 Future Medicine Ltd.
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