Cardiovascular Disease Risk Stratification With Stress Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography Technetium-99m Tetrofosmin Imaging in Patients With the Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes Mellitus
Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon
The metabolic syndrome represents a constellation of risk factors caused by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity, resulting in elevated coronary disease risk. From a multicenter prospective registry of 7,849 patients, the relation among the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and risk stratification with stress technetium-99m tetrofosmin single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) was evaluated. The percentage of stress myocardial defects was calculated as < or = 5%, 5.1% to 10%, 10.1% to 15%, and > 15%. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to estimate cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction (n = 752). Of 7,849 patients, 42% had the metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome had an 84% 2-year event-free survival rate, lower than patients with normal metabolic status (p <0.0001). In patients with the metabolic syndrome, the percentage of moderate to severely abnormal SPECT findings ranged from 11% to 44% for those with 3 to 5 risk factors for the metabolic syndrome. There was an additive relation between the number of risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and the extent and severity of abnormalities in SPECT findings (p <0.0001). Patients with 5 risk factors for the metabolic syndrome were at the greatest risk, with hazard ratios from 7.8- to 14.1-fold for mild to severely abnormal SPECT findings. For diabetic patients requiring combined oral and insulin therapy, relative risk ratios increased from 15 to 21.4 for patients with > 5% to > 15% stress myocardial perfusion defects. In conclusion, cardiovascular prognosis is affected by the degree of metabolic dysfunction, and stress-induced reductions in myocardial perfusion provide an accurate means for near-term risk stratification.