The diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer: From RBCs to TURs
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
Timely and accurate diagnosis and staging of bladder cancer is critical for the successful management of patients with this disease. We review the literature on screening, signs and symptoms, cystoscopic evaluation, diagnostic tests, transurethral resection, and imaging. We highlight emerging areas, such as markers and fluorescence cystoscopy. Suspicion, accuracy, and technologic advances are key factors in ensuring the best outcomes for patients with bladder cancer.