Impact of valvular regurgitation on left ventricular geometry and function in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: The LIFE study
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Mitral Valve Insufficiency
Ventricular Function, Left
Mild-to-moderate aortic and mitral regurgitation are frequently detected by echocardiogram in asymptomatic hypertensive patients. Our goal was to assess the prevalence and impact of mild-to-moderate mitral and/or aortic regurgitation on left ventricular (LV) structure and function in patients with hypertension and LV hypertrophy (LVH). Hypertensive patients with ECG LVH enrolled in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) echocardiography substudy were evaluated. Among 939 patients with needed LV measurements and Doppler data, 242 had mild (1+) valvular regurgitation, and 51 patients had moderate (2+ or 3+) regurgitation of one or both valves. In analyses adjusting for gender, patients with mild mitral and/or aortic regurgitation had larger LV internal dimensions (5.25 vs 5.33 cm, P<0.05), higher LV mass indexed for body surface area (122 vs 125 g/m(2), P<0.05) or height(2.7) (55.4 vs 57.3, P<0.05), and larger left atrial diameter. Patients with moderate regurgitation of one or both valves had larger LV chambers (5.25 vs 5.9 cm, P<0.001), greater mean LV mass (232 vs 248 g, P<0.001) and LV mass indexed for body surface area or height(2.7), and higher Doppler stroke volume. Patients with moderate valvular regurgitation also had a higher prevalence of LVH due to an increased prevalence of eccentric LVH. There were no differences among groups defined by the presence and severity of valvular regurgitation in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, or pulse pressure/stroke volume, indicating that the observed inter-group differences in LV geometry were not due to differences in the haemodynamic severity of hypertension. Hypertensive patients with mild-to-moderate mitral or aortic valvular insufficiency have additional LV structural and functional changes that may affect prognosis.