Review article: Putting immediate-release proton-pump inhibitors into clinical practice - Improving nocturnal acid control and avoiding the possible complications of excessive acid exposure Review uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Chronotherapy
  • Gastroesophageal Reflux
  • Histamine H2 Antagonists
  • Omeprazole
  • Proton Pump Inhibitors


  • Nocturnal gastro-oesphageal reflux is an under-appreciated clinical challenge. This condition may cause symptoms such as nocturnal heartburn, or it may be asymptomatic. In addition, patients may experience sleep disturbances that can potentially lead to complications such as erosive oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and may be a risk factor for development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have traditionally been effective in treating both daytime and night-time reflux symptoms, but are limited in control of nocturnal acidity by their pharmacodynamic characteristics. This narrative review addresses the prevalence, impact and pharmacologic approaches used to control nocturnal acidity. Methods to optimize nocturnal acid control include careful attention to dosing schedule, using higher doses of PPIs, adding an histamine H2-receptor antagonist at bedtime to once or twice daily delayed-release PPI, or using immediate-release omeprazole (Zegerid powder for oral suspension; Santarus, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). This new formulation appears to provide sustained control of intragastric pH at steady state, and when dosed at bedtime, and may be effective in improving control of nocturnal pH and treating night-time GERD.

publication date

  • December 2005



  • Review



  • eng

PubMed ID

  • 16303035

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 31

end page

  • 8


  • 22


  • 3