Clara cell protein 16 concentration in mid-trimester amniotic fluid: Association with fetal gender, fetal G > A +38 CC16 gene polymorphism and pregnancy outcome Academic Article uri icon


MeSH Major

  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Fetal Membranes, Premature Rupture
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Pregnancy Trimester, Second
  • Uteroglobin


  • Clara cell protein 16 (CC16) is a major immunomodulatory protein produced in the fetal lung. We hypothesized that the mid-trimester amniotic fluid concentration of CC16 would vary according to a +38 CC16 polymorphism in the fetal genome and that increased levels would be an early indicator of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcome. Mid-trimester singleton amniotic fluids from 244 women were assayed for CC16 by ELISA. DNA from fetal cells in 179 amniotic fluids were tested for the A>G polymorphism at position +38 in exon 1 by PCR. Outcome data were obtained from 233 women after completion of laboratory testing. Median CC16 levels were higher in amniotic fluids containing male fetuses than in those with females (p=0.0005). Median amniotic fluid CC16 levels were higher in Hispanics than in Whites and Asians (p<0.05). CC16*G homozygosity was associated with elevated amniotic fluid CC16 concentrations compared to CC16*A homozygotes (p=0.02). Intraamniotic CC16 levels were highest in pregnancies that subsequently resulted in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) (p=0.01). We conclude that mid-trimester intraamniotic CC16 concentrations vary by gender, ethnicity and fetal CC16 gene polymorphism. Elevated CC16 levels are predictive of subsequent development of PPROM.

publication date

  • December 2005



  • Academic Article



  • eng

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.jri.2005.08.001

PubMed ID

  • 16236364

Additional Document Info

start page

  • 85

end page

  • 90


  • 68


  • 1-2