Late relapse of testicular germ cell tumors
Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal
The successful multidisciplinary approach for the management of germ cell tumors of the testis has resulted in survival rates of greater than 90% overall. While the majority of relapses in patients with germ cell tumors occur within the first 2 years of treatment, the incidence of late relapse beyond 2 years has been increasing over recent years. The pattern of late relapse suggests that an inadequately controlled retroperitoneum is a major predisposing factor, with up to 80% of late relapses occurring in the retroperitoneum. These tumors tend to be chemorefractory and overall prognosis for patients with late relapse of germ cell tumors is relatively poor, with survival rates of approximately 30% to 40%. In this review, we present the recent data regarding the clinical presentation, patterns of relapse, histologic findings, appropriate treatment options, and outcomes for men with late relapse of germ cell tumors.