Glutathione S-transferase P1 Ile105Val polymorphism, cigarette smoking and prostate cancer
The enzyme glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) detoxifies carcinogenic products of tobacco smoke. This exploratory case-control study evaluates the possible effect modification by the GSTP1 Ile105Val polymorphism (replacement of isoleucine by valine at codon 105) on smoking and prostate cancer. Because the Val variant possesses up to a five-fold greater enzymatic activity towards the carcinogenic metabolites of tobacco smoke, the Ile allele is expected to be related to an increase in the risk of prostate cancer among smokers. GSTP1 genotype and epidemiological data were obtained from 122 cases of prostate cancer and 135 healthy males as controls. A logistic regression model was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The adjusted OR of homozygous Ile compared to other genotypes for prostate cancer was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.61-2.83). Smoking was not significantly associated with prostate cancer with an adjusted OR of 1.56 (95% CI: 0.78-3.12). However, among individuals with the Ile/Ile genotype, smoking was strongly associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer with an adjusted odds ratio of 4.09 (95% CI: 1.25-13.35). A potential multiplicative interaction was suggested between GSTP1 and smoking on the risk of prostate cancer with the adjusted OR for the interaction of 4.52 (95% CI: 1.07-19.17). To our knowledge, this is the first time that a potential effect modification by the GSTP1 Ile/Ile genotype on smoking and the risk of prostate cancer is suggested.