Over the past several decades neurooncologists have attempted to find an adjuvant treatment that prolongs survival for patients with malignant brain tumors. Brachytherapy, radiotherapy delivered by placing radioactive sources directly into the tumor, was initially thought to be the solution to this problem. Initial single institution studies showed very promising results; however, this technique has failed to show a significant survival advantage in two randomized studies. Despite this, brachytherapy continues to be used in a number of centers throughout the world for the treatment of various types of brain tumors including low-grade gliomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, glioblastomas, meningiomas and metastases. This article reviews brachytherapy's rationale, radiobiology, complications, indications, and results from numerous studies that have focused on its application for brain tumors with emphasis on its application for glial tumors.