Clonal genetic alterations in the lungs of current and former smokers
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 9
Genetic alterations at chromosomal sites containing putative tumor-suppressor genes (i.e., 3p14 and the FHIT gene, 9p21 and the p16 gene [also known as CDKN2], and 17p13 and the p53 gene [also known as TP53]) occur frequently in the histologically normal or minimally altered bronchial epithelium of chronic smokers.