Impact of intraoperative edema during transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy on computer-optimized and preimplant planning techniques.
Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted
The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate intraoperative prostatic edema during prostate brachytherapy with real-time ultrasound imaging and assess its impact upon the postimplant dosimetry of computer-optimized intraoperatively planned patients. Fifty consecutive patients with early-stage favorable risk adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent transperineal ultrasound-guided I125 brachytherapy. Ultrasound volume studies of the prostate were performed immediately before and after placement of brachytherapy needles in the operating room. Twenty-five patients underwent intraoperative computer-optimized treatment planning using a genetic algorithm. Twenty-five patients underwent preimplant ultrasound studies for preimplant treatment planning. Postimplant dosimetry was performed on computed tomography scans obtained after the implant. Statistical analysis was performed taking into account patient age, preneedle volume, increase in intraoperative edema, use of hormonal therapy, type of isotope, number of needles or seeds used, and seed activity. For the intraoperatively planned patients, a median increase of 30% in intraoperative volume was found for the entire group. No correlation between the extent of intraoperative edema and %D90 (percentage of prescribed dose that covers 90% of the target volume) was found. None of the other analyzed variables correlated with %D90. Patients whose treatment was planned preoperatively experienced a median increase of 18.4% in target volume. A negative correlation between the amount of edema and the %D90 was found to be statistically significant (-0.55, P = 0.0047). All patients who underwent prostate brachytherapy experienced intraoperative prostatic edema. When planned intraoperatively, the amount of edema had no impact on the %D90. This may be because of the ability of intraoperative computer-optimized treatment planning to account for edema related to the procedure. Preplanned patients who encountered a greater degree of intraoperative edema had less %D90 target coverage.