Hypodiploidy with less than 45 chromosomes confers adverse risk in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A report from the Children's Cancer Group
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma
We have determined the prognostic significance of hypodiploidy (<46 chromosomes) in a large cohort of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated by the Children's Cancer Group. Among 1,880 patients, 110 (5.8%) had hypodiploid karyotypes: 87 had 45 chromosomes, 15 had 33 to 44 chromosomes, none had 29 to 32 chromosomes, and 8 had 24 to 28 chromosomes (near-haploidy). Six-year event-free survival (EFS) estimates for patients with 45 chromosomes, 33 to 44 chromosomes, or 24 to 28 chromosomes were 65% (standard deviation [SD], 8%), 40% (SD, 18%), and 25% (SD, 22%), respectively (log rank, P =.002; test for trend, P =.0009). The combined hypodiploid group had worse outcome than nonhypodiploid patients, with 6-year EFS of 58% (SD, 7%) and 76% (SD, 2%), respectively (P <.0001). EFS for the subgroup with 45 chromosomes was similar to that of patients with pseudodiploidy (P =.43) or 47 to 50 chromosomes (P =.76). None of the patients with 24 to 28 chromosomes had a t(4;11), a t(9;22), or a t(1;19), and most received highly intensive therapy. The adverse risk associated with 33 to 44 and 24 to 28 chromosomes remained significant in multivariate analyses adjusted for important risk factors including age, white blood cell count, and Philadelphia chromosome status. Thus, hypodiploidy with less than 45 chromosomes, particularly 24 to 28 chromosomes, is a significant adverse risk factor despite treatment with contemporary intensive therapies.