Total Synthesis of Apoptolidin: Completion of the Synthesis and Analogue Synthesis and Evaluation
The total synthesis of apoptolidin (1) is reported together with the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a number of analogues. The assembly of key fragments 6 and 7 to vinyl iodide 3 via dithiane coupling technology was supplemented by a second generation route to this advanced intermediate involving a Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons coupling of fragments 22 and 25. The final stages of the synthesis featured a Stille coupling between vinyl iodide 3 and vinylstannane 2, a Yamaguchi lactonization, a number of glycosidations, and final deprotection. The developed synthetic technology was applied to the construction of several analogues including 74, 75, and 77 which exhibit significant bioactivity against tumor cells.