Clonal evolution and lack of cytogenetic response are adverse prognostic factors for hematologic relapse of chronic phase CML patients treated with imatinib mesylate
Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive
We followed 141 patients treated with imatinib mesylate (> 300 mg) for chronicphase chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) following failure of treatment with interferon. During 12 months from the start of imatinib mesylate treatment, 96.5% achieved a complete hematologic response, 47.0% achieved a major cytogenetic response, and 32.4% achieved a complete cytogenetic response. The proportion of patients with hematologic relapse was 10.9% at 12 months and 14.6% at 18 months. In a univariate Cox regression analysis, the only pretreatment characteristics that correlated with an increased risk of hematologic relapse were hemoglobin level less than 120 g/L (12 g/dL) (P =.02), increased bands in the peripheral blood (P =.01), and clonal evolution (P <.0001). In a multivariate analysis, an elevated platelet count (P =.03) and clonal evolution (P <.0001) were the only significant factors for hematologic relapse. During treatment, the absence of a major cytogenetic response within the first 6 months also significantly correlated with relapse (P =.03). Notably, patients failing to achieve a major cytogenetic response by 6 months had a significantly higher rate of hematologic relapse (27%) compared with those who achieved a major cytogenetic response by 6 months (3%), and patients with clonal evolution had a significantly higher risk of hematologic relapse (50%) than those without clonal evolution (9%).