Entry inhibitors SCH-C, RANTES, and T-20 block HIV type 1 replication in multiple cell types
The small-molecule CCR5 antagonist SCH-C (SCH 351125) was tested for its ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cord blood mononuclear cells, immature dendritic cells (DCs), and macrophages. Inhibition of infection of PBMCs by virus associated with mature DC in trans was also studied. For comparison, the peptide-based fusion inhibitor T-20 and the CC-chemokine RANTES were also evaluated. Although some cell type-dependent differences in potency were observed, each of the three entry inhibitors was active against the replication of three different CCR5-using primary isolates in each cell type. CCR5-dependent HIV-1 infectivity, whether DC associated or not, is thus vulnerable to inhibitors that block the virus-cell fusion process by different mechanisms. Together, these results suggest that SCH-C and other entry inhibitors should be evaluated for their clinical potential as inhibitors of HIV-1 replication in several settings, including the prevention of maternal-infant transmission and the prevention of sexual transmission by topical application as a microbicide.