Urothelial tumors represent a spectrum of diseases with a range of prognoses. Once a diagnosis is established at any point on the urothelial tract, the patient remains at risk for developing a new lesion at a different or the same location, at a similar or more advanced stage. Continued monitoring for recurrence is an essential part of management, as most recurrences are superficial and can be managed by endoscopic means. Within each category of disease, more refined methods to determine prognosis and guide management, based on molecular staging, are under development. These methods are aimed at optimizing the individual patient's likelihood of cure and chance for organ preservation. For patients with more extensive disease, newer treatments typically involve combined-modality approaches using recently developed surgical procedures, or three-dimensional treatment planning for more precise delivery of radiation therapy. While these are not appropriate in all cases, they do offer the promise of an improved quality of life and prolonged survival. Finally, within the category of metastatic disease, a number of new agents have been identified that appear to be superior to those currently considered to be standard therapies. It is thought, therefore, that the treatment of urothelial tumors will evolve rapidly over the next few years, with improved outcomes for patients with all stages of disease.