Conventional radiation therapy has had limited success in curing inoperable lung cancer due to poor local control. There is evidence to suggest that higher doses of radiation will improve local control. In order to safely deliver higher doses of thoracic radiation, advanced treatment techniques are required. Different biologic indices have been utilized to determine whether dose escalation can be safely accomplished, and the results have been reported from many institutions. Tumor motion control aids in treatment since it allows radiation oncologists to more accurately target tumors and therefore to spare more normal tissue from the radiation field. The imaging information from 18-FDG-PET scans also improves target delineation. Advanced treatment delivery techniques, such as three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy, and stereotactic radiosurgery are also being used to safely escalate the radiation dose. This article explores the current literature on these issues and other advanced radiation therapy techniques.