Active, specific immunotherapy for lung cancer: Hurdles and strategies using genetic modification
Active immunotherapy for lung cancer has been a challenge because of the poor antigenic characterization of these tumors and their ability to escape the immune response. However, knowledge of the mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity has expanded significantly over the past decade, leading to the development of more novel, specific strategies for augmenting the immune response. Genetic manipulation of tumor cells, immune cells, or both, may help overcome some of the previously encountered difficulties of immunotherapy. Laboratory and clinical investigations are currently ongoing to evaluate the feasibility and potential benefit of these novel approaches.