Risks of using internal thoracic artery grafts in patients in chronic hemodialysis via upper extremity arteriovenous fistula
Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical
Coronary Artery Bypass
Hemodynamically evident flow steal and consequent myocardial ischemia develop during hemodialysis in patients with upper extremity arteriovenous fistula and ipsilateral internal thoracic artery to coronary graft. These data have major implications for patients' management, both for nephrologists and cardiac surgeons.