Overview of bladder cancer trials in the cancer and leukemia group B
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols
Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
The Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) Genitourinary Committee has developed a broad range of clinical trials across most stages of bladder cancer. Recurrence rates of superficial bladder cancer after transurethral resection range from 50-70%. Although adjuvant bacillus Calmette-Guerin reduces the risk of disease recurrence or progression, only 30% of patients have long-term disease-free survival. Because the development of novel secondline agents is needed, the CALGB is evaluating the utility of intravesicle gemcitabine as well as an oral proapoptotic agent (CP-461). In patients with locally advanced disease with an increased risk of disease recurrence after cystectomy, a randomized trial of conventional chemotherapy versus sequential dose-dense therapy is under development. The gemcitabine/cisplatin combination has become a commonly used regimen for the treatment of advanced transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). The CALGB is undertaking a Phase II study that incorporates a fixed dose rate gemcitabine infusion in this regimen, together with a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Iressa (Astra Zeneca, Wilmington, DE). In patients with renal insufficiency, a regimen of carboplatin, gemcitabine, and Iressa is planned. Novel agents, including arsenic trioxide and trastuzumab (Herceptin; Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA), are being evaluated as secondline therapy in patients with advanced TCC who have disease progression after frontline therapy.