An appraisal of echocardiography as an epidemiological tool: The strong heart study
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular
Improvements in echocardiographic methods have increased the yield of LVM in middle-aged and older adults and allow even more consistent assessment of cardiac volume load. Despite small persistent biases, due to associations of missing LVM and Doppler stroke volume data with male gender, greater obesity, lower FEV(1) and (for LVM only) older age, individuals with missing measurement are not at higher risk of cardiovascular events.