Direct and indirect immunofluorescence as a diagnostic adjunct in the interpretation of nonneoplastic medical lung disease
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
Lung Diseases, Interstitial
Fresh open lung biopsy material from 57 patients was incubated with fluoresceinated complement and immunoglobulin antisera. An indirect immunofluorescent assay using neonatal lung as substrate was conducted as well. Direct immunofluorescent patterns could be categorized into interalveolar septal capillary deposition, large vessel wall localization, alveolar basement membrane localization, or a pauci-immune immunofluorescence pattern. With respect to the septal capillary pattern, endothelial cell decoration was seen with scleroderma, mixed connective tissue disease, anti-Ro-associated lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, humoral allograft rejection, and patients with isolated pulmonary fibrosis in whom autoantibodies were established, including antiphospholipid antibodies. A similar pattern of endothelial cell staining was seen in these cases via the indirect assay. Granular mural septal capillary deposition was seen in the aforesaid settings along with rheumatoid factor-positive rheumatoid arthritis, type II cryofibrinogenemia, and mixed cryoglobulinemia and, in some cases, light microscopically corresponded to a neutrophilic capillaritis. Isolated vascular IgA corresponded with rheumatoid arthritis corresponding to IgA-specific antiendothelial cell antibodies, celiac disease-associated pulmonary hemorrhage, Schönlein-Henoch purpura and with IgA antiphospholipid antibodies. Alveolar wall deposition was seen with anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.