Regulation of IL-1beta -induced GM-CSF production in human airway smooth muscle cells by carbon monoxide.
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Asthma, a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators, including granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a stress-response protein, confers protection against oxidative stress. We hypothesized that carbon monoxide (CO), a byproduct of HO-1-dependent heme catabolism, regulates GM-CSF synthesis in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMC). IL-1beta treatment induced a time-dependent induction of GM-CSF in HASMC. Furthermore, IL-1beta stimulated the major MAPK pathways, including ERK1/ERK2, JNK, and p38 MAPK. Exposure of HASMC to CO at low concentration (250 ppm) markedly inhibited IL-1beta-induced GM-CSF synthesis (>90%) compared with air-treated controls. CO treatment inhibited IL-1beta-induced ERK1/2 activation but did not inhibit JNK and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, CO increased cGMP levels in HASMC. Inhibition of guanylate cyclase by IH-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-1 (ODQ) abolished the inhibitory effects of CO on GM-CSF synthesis and ERK1/2 activation. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of CO on GM-CSF synthesis depends on ERK1/2 MAPK and guanylate cyclase/cGMP-dependent pathways.