Effect of local delivery of L-arginine on in-stent restenosis in humans
Education, Medical, Continuing
To determine whether intramural administration of L-arginine reduces intimal thickening after optimal Palmaz-Schatz stent deployment in humans, 50 patients with native coronary artery disease who received a single Palmaz-Schatz stent were enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were randomized into 2 treatment groups: an L-arginine group (n = 25) and a saline group (n = 25). After stent deployment, L-arginine (600 mg/6 ml) or saline (6 ml) was locally delivered via the Dispatch catheter (Scimed) over 15 minutes. Serial angiography and intravascular ultrasound examinations (motorized pull-back at 0.5 mm/s) were performed before and after the procedure, and at 6-month follow-up. Measurements of stent area, lumen area, and neointimal area were computed within the stents at 1-mm intervals, by technicians who were blinded to the treatment assignment. Using Simpson's rule, stent, plaque, and lumen volumes, neointimal volume within the stent, and percent neointimal volume were measured before and after the procedure, and at 6-month follow-up. The 6-month volume data in quantitative coronary ultrasound showed that neointimal volume in the L-arginine group was significantly less than in the saline group (25 vs 39 mm(3); p = 0.049). Similarly, percent neointimal volume was significantly less in the L-arginine group at 6-month follow-up (17 +/- 13% vs 27 +/- 21%; p = 0.048). Thus, these results showed that local delivery of L-arginine reduces in-stent neointimal hyperplasia in humans, indicating that this approach may be a novel strategy to prevent in-stent restenosis.