Quantitative parameters of myocardial perfusion with contrast echocardiography in human beings: Influence of triggering mode
Coronary Artery Disease
To facilitate quantitation of myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) in human beings, dual- or triple-triggered flash imaging has been advocated. However, the effect of this modality on quantitative blood-flow parameters of MCE is not known. Accordingly, MCE was quantitated in 71 myocardial regions of 22 patients (age: 57 +/- 16 years) during continuous infusion of Optison (12-18 mL/h). Two sets of images with end-systolic gating (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:6, and 1:8) from the apical 4-chamber view were acquired: single and dual triggering for the first 15 patients; and single and triple triggering for the other 7 patients. During gated imaging, MCE of the first, second, and third frame were quantitated. Curves of intensity versus pulsing intervals were fitted to an exponential function: y = A (1-e(-betat)). Where beta is myocardial blood velocity or the rate of rise of myocardial contrast intensity (MCI), and A is myocardial blood volume or the plateau of MCI reached. Continuous imaging, and the second and third frame in 1:1 gating only, provided similar intensity to precontrast imaging. Beyond 1:1 gating, MCI of the second frame in dual triggering mode gradually increased with incremental pulsing interval. This was still present but less pronounced in triple triggering. During dual and triple triggering, a lower beta was observed compared with single triggering. Application of image subtraction with the flash procedure further decreased beta, A, and the A(*)beta product, a quantitative parameter of blood flow by MCE. Thus, flash subtraction imaging alters the quantitative parameters of myocardial blood velocity and flow derived from MCE. Continuous imaging, and the second or third frame in flash imaging at 1:1 gating only, result in MCI similar to precontrast imaging and can be used for background subtraction to quantitate MCE parameters.