Antibody-targeted chemotherapy of older patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse using Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin)
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
We analyzed the safety and efficacy of Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin, an antibody-targeted chemotherapy consisting of a humanized anti-CD33 antibody linked to calicheamicin, a potent antitumor antibiotic) in the treatment of 101 patients > or =60 years of age with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in untreated first relapse in three open-label trials. Mylotarg is administered as a 2-h intravenous infusion at 9 mg/m(2) for two doses with 14 days between doses. The overall remission rate was 28%, with complete remission (CR) in 13% of patients and complete remission with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp) in 15%. Median survival was 5.4 months for all patients and 14.5 months and 11.8 months for patients achieving CR and CRp, respectively. CD33 antigen is present on normal hematopoietic progenitor cells; thus, an expected high incidence of grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (99%) and thrombocytopenia (99%) was observed. The incidences of grade 3 or 4 elevations of bilirubin and hepatic transaminases were 24% and 15%, respectively. There was a low incidence of grade 3 or 4 mucositis (4%) and infections (27%) and no treatment-related cardiotoxicity, cerebellar toxicity, or alopecia. Mylotarg is an effective treatment for older patients with CD33-positive AML in first relapse and has acceptable toxicity.