Histone deacetylase inhibitors all induce p21 but differentially cause tubulin acetylation, mitotic arrest, and cytotoxicity
Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
By preventing deacetylation of histones, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDIs) transcriptionally induce p21. Here we show that the HDIs sodium butyrate (Bu), trichostatin A (TSA) and depsipeptide (FR901228) all induced p21, but only TSA and FR901228 caused mitotic arrest (in addition to arrest in G1 and G2). The ability to cause mitotic arrest correlated with the higher cytotoxicity of these compounds. Although causing mitotic arrest, TSA and FR901228 (unlike paclitaxel) did not affect tubulin polymerization. Unlike FR9012208, TSA caused acetylation of tubulin at lysine 40; both soluble tubulin and microtubules were acetylated. Whereas the induction of p21 reached a maximum by 8 h, tubulin was maximally acetylated after only 1 h of TSA treatment. Tubulin acetylation was detectable after treatment with 12-25 ng/ml TSA although acetylation plateaued at 50 ng/ml TSA, coinciding with G2-M arrest, appearance of cells with a sub-2N DNA content, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and rapid cell death. We conclude that HDIs have differential effects on non-histone deacetylases and that rapid acetylation of tubulin caused by TSA is a marker of nontranscriptional effects of TSA.